Acrylates Copolymer

 

Acrylates Copolymer is a any two monomers of acrylates that are joined together and called a copolymer. A monomer is a chain of one type of acrylate, so a copolymer is a chain that consists of two or more acrylates. More information about what a copolymer is can be found at this Copolymer Link. What exactly is in an ingredient that lists Acrylate Copolymer is most likely an acrylate acid and methacrylic acid bonded together with various other monomers of acrylates.

 

Generally speaking an acrylate is a type of rubber or plastic that can function in cleansers for beauty products to absorb the water and allow the product to glide over your skin.

 

Apparently the levels found in cosmetics (though we don't actually know the levels because we don't have the percentage or amounts of the ingredients and since they are released only voluntarily..) are safe, but acrylates copolymers are carcinogenic to lab rats (International Journal of Toxicology).

 

Alumina

 

According to wiki, alumina is short for aluminum oxide. It is used in cosmetics as a filler (wiki).

 

 

Beeswax

 

This is a natural wax from bees. Worker bees convert honey into wax to make the honeycomb part (Beeswax Co).

 

Other Names: Cera Alba, Cire d'abeille

 

Bis-Diglyceryl Polyacyladipate-2

 

Mixed fatty acid esters used as an emollient in cosmetics. It is a non-animal lanolin substitute, so many vegan companies will use this. It has "high water-binding properties, excellent adhesion to the skin and glossy finish" (Truth In Aging). Truth in Aging claims that Bis-Diglyceryl Polyacyladipate-2 is mildly toxic, yet a CIR assessment found no toxicity. The CIR revealed that a slight mild irritation occurred in human test subject with known allergies, but reversed themselves within 24 hours upon removal of Bis-Diglyceryl Polyacyladipate-2 (CIR).

 

 

Blue 1 Lake (CI 42090)

 

This is a synthetic dye that is a blue-red. The word "lake" refers to a substrate that is mixed with Blue 1 to create a new color, which is a blue-red. The word substrate is misleading because it is a chemical reaction to another element or compound. For example a substrate can be mildly toxic such as aluminum or seemingly harmless like sodium. For more information on colorants see the Appendix.

 

 

Butylene Glycol

 

Butylene Glycol is a humectant and conditioning agent. The CIR has a positive spin on Butylene Glycol. Butylene Glycol is derived from acetaldehyde. Through the oxidation process with nickel, copper and other heavy metals, the creation of Butylene Glycol is derived. Acetaldehyde is a known carcinogen and a dangerous one, since acetaldehyde is found floating through the air. According to a report published  by plos.org  it is "one of the most frequently found carcinogens." Does the process of the formation of butylene glycol poison the air?

 

Butyrospermum Parkii (shea) Butter

 

This is Shea Butter. It comes from Shea Trees in Africa. It has a natural UV protection as well as containing natural vitamin A, E, and F. The oils in Shea Butter closely resemble the oils found in the sebaceous glands. It works great on dermatitis. From TruthinAging.com, "Acts as a skin conditioning agent and viscosity (thickness) increasing agent."

 

 

 

Calcium Aluminum Borosilicate

 

This ingredient has borosilicate as well, but instead of calcium sodium it has calcium aluminum. What is the difference in the molecular compound? How does aluminum reaction to calcium and borosilicate (silica and boron trioxide)?

 

Calcium Sodium Borosilicate

 

Calcium Sodium Borosilicate is finely ground glass crystals that are used as sparkle and iridescent colors. Impact Colors Inc produces calcium sodium borosilicate for cosmetics, though they have since taken any information about ground up glass from their website. Borosilicate is also known as the brand Pyrex, which is a type of durable glass usually sold as kitchenware (wiki).

 

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride

 

Derived from the fatty acids of coconut and palm oil. They offer several key benefits. They offer a noticeable silkiness in products. They exhibit excellent anti-oxidant properties to extend the natural shelf life. They offer skin nurturing benefits due to the skin loving nature of the specific fatty acid esters, not seen with common fractionated Coconut Oil, or other carrier oils, and they are especially suited to sensitive skin and oily skin. Good as carriers for fat soluble vitamins (Source).

 

Caprylyl Glycol

 

Caprylyl Glycol is in the same family as propylene glycol. According to a 2010 study done by the CIR, Caprylyl Glycol and the other glycols are very safe (CIR). I believe that all glycols are short chain sugar molecules, which are commonly referred to as alcohols.

 

Carmine

 

Carmine is a natural dye that is non vegan. It is made from the cochineal insect, which is native to Central America. The cochineal insect produces a poisonous acid, called carmic acid to protect themselves against predators. After the cochineal is dead and dried, the carmic acid is extracted. This is mixed with aluminum or calcium salts to make the bright red color.

 

It can produces an allergic reaction in some people, especially when used as a food additive, but some people are allergic to shellfish and peanuts too. This doesn't mean that carmine is toxic. What it does mean is that you can have an allergic reaction to carmine if you put it on your face or ingest it through licking your lipstick. Carmine, like many things, can be an allergen.

 

It is not a known carcinogen, toxin or harmful to the environment. Carmine is considered safe when tested on rats by the (NIH).

 

Other Names: CI 75470, Cochineal, Carmine Acid and Crimson Lake

 

Companies on our list that use carmine: CoverGirl, Inglot, M.A.C., Nars, Smashbox, Stila, Too Faced,

 

Ceresin

 

A soft hydrocarbon wax found from shale rock from petroleum production. It is used to bind or emulsify oils to water. It is commonly used as a cheaper substitute for beeswax. It is cleverly marketed as vegan though the environmental safety is questionable. This is a product that is a byproduct of hydraulic fracturing.

 

Other Names: Ozokerite

 

Cetyl Dimethicone

 

Here is another Dimethicone, but this time it is a cetyl. Cetyl is a type of alcohol (dictionary.com). According to  truthinaging, cetyl dimethicone keeps the oil and water from separating, acts as an emulsifer, surfactant, and eliminates any tacky feeling leaving the skin feeling smooth. It can also help spread the pigmentation.

 

Citric Acid

 

Citric Acid is a naturally occurring acid found in citrus fruits, especially lemons, limes and oranges. It was inadvertently discovered in 1893 when C. Wehmer saw mold growing in his petri dishes. This also lead to the discovery of Penicillium. It has been produced synthetically since 1977 in mass production. Citric acid is a powerful chemical compound used for various purposes in various industries. In basic soap (even dish washing soaps and face soaps) it is used as a chelating agent. Chelating is the ability to bind metals. If the water is hard, the citric acid reacts to soften the water by bind the metals from the hard water. This gives it the ability to lather and sud, furthermore helping you rinse away any metals that might come into contact with your skin if you have hard water.

 

This ability to chelate also helps to preserve the formula, by binding the metals that might contaminate the cosmetic. We don't want rust or any heavy metals in our cosmetics, do we?

 

Chromium Oxide Greens (CI 77288)

 

Chromium Oxide is a natural mineral called eskolaite. Eskolaite is also found in meteorites (wikipedia). Chromium Oxide Green is a straight color and does not use a substrate such as aluminum. Even though Chromium Oxide Green is considered safe from harmful heavy metals, it is only approved for use around the eyes. It is not allowed in lipsticks.

 

The FDA recent guidelines for chromium oxide greens states, "There is no regulation that limits the use of chromium in cosmetics, although the listing regulation for the color additive FD&C Blue No. 1 limits chromium as an impurity to 50 ppm. When present as an impurity in a cosmetic, chromium will not be listed on the label" (FDA).

 

Coco Glucoside

 

This product is a surfactant, which makes it easy.....

 

Coco-Caprylate/Caprate

 

This is an emollient made from the esters of Coconut Fatty Alcohol and Caprylic Acids. It is known to be safe without any health concerns. It is a natural derivative. It is biodegradable and often used as a silicone substitute because of its natural slip and glide.

 

This woman tests out the ingredients on her own skin! What an amazing woman! Check out her blog her.

 

Ingredient in SmashBox's Loose Powder

 

Cocamidopropyl Betaine

 

This product is a surfactant that originally comes from coconuts, which is why manufacturers place a natural label on their products. It goes through a long chemical chain that results in a multipurpose chemical compound that is suitable for use as a detergent, foaming agent, thickener, anti static agent, and can be used as an antiseptic product. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review board has assessed cocamidopropyl betaine as safe, but only in rinse off formulas that are at levels under 30%. Some new studies have concluded that a small number of people are sensitive to some of the ingredients in cocamidopropyl betaine, which they call impurities (CIR).

 

Cyclopentasiloxane

 

This is a silicone. Silicone similar to a plastic because it can reacts like a plastic. Regardless, it is a polymer made of a long chain of silicon, oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms. It repels water from the skin and fills in fine lines so that the skin looks younger and smoother. It is a main ingredient in many foundations. It is also used in a lot of shampoos and conditioners to give the hair a silky feeling without adding addition weight (Truth In Aging). It does seem to have an adverse affect on the environment especially marine life. When we wash makeup and shampoo down the drain, cyclopentasioloxane ends up in our water systems such as lakes and streams. Since it repels water and it does not biodegrade, fish eat small particles of cyclopentasiloxane. Naturally humans then eat the fish. We are eating many non biodegradable silicones and plastics (Waterways).

 

Other Names: Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane

 

Cyclohexasiloxane

 

 

 

 

Diisosteraryl Malate

 

A four carbon emollient and skin conditioner. It is primarily found in lipsticks. Diisosteararyl Malate is extremely safe and absolutely no toxicity was found in any test samples whether they were oral, intravenous or dermal (CIR).

 

Dimethicone

 

Dimethicone is a silicone based oil. It repels water from the skin and is used in products as a carrier for the pigments. Silicone is considered very safe because the molecules are not large enough to penetrate the pores (kjbennett.com). Silicone is obviously used in plastic surgery inside people's bodies, so that gives me some comfort at the safety level. It is called "occulsive" because it sits on top of the skin, which some people on the Internet argue makes the skin non breathable. Another argument is that it prevents other materials, especially oils from clogging the pores. Perhaps it can act as a barrier to all the other stuff in makeup? The problem with dimethicone is that it is not biodegradable and it repels water. So what happens after you wash it off and it goes down the drain? It must just sit on top of the water, but unlike a natural oil it won't break down. So are we just drinking plastic/silicone/dimethicone when our water is reused?

 

Dimethicone, which is non-biodegradable and stays on top of the skin, which traps oils and bacteria underneath your skin.

 

Other Names: polydimethylsiloxane

 

DI-PPG-2 Myreth-10 Adipate

 

This product is added to surfactants. Surfactants are used in face washes, shampoos, soaps and dish soaps. They strip away oil. When DI-PPG-2 Myreth-10 Adipate is added to a surfactant is adds back the moisture. It can be used alone or with a surfactant like SLS. According to the Free Library  DI-PPG-2 Myreth-10 Adipate is gentle and effective. The study concluded that when DI-PPG- Myreth-10 Adipate is added to an SLS it is less irritating.

 

Another study supporting the use of DI-PPG-2 Myreth-10 Adipate can be found at Mattek.com

 

A bigger problem with this product is that it goes through the ethoxylation process, which can result in trace amounts of 1,4-dioxane, a known carcinogen. This ingredient has not been reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR).

 

You can buy DI-PPG-2 Myreth-10 Adipate at the personal formulator website. PPG-2 is listed among many other chemicals, but not Myreth-10. Myreth-10 is listed separately.

 

DMDM Hydantoin

 

Is a formaldehyde preservative. Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen. The CIR has published a report stating that in low doses (1%-2%), the formaldehyde laden DMDM Hydantoin is safe. People with formaldehyde sensitivities should not use it.

 

 

 

Ethylenediamine/Hydrogenated Dimer Dilinoleate Copolymer BIS-DI-C14-18 Alkyl Amide

 

This looks like a polymer that has been developed by Arizona Chemical Bio Renewable solutions. They claim that this product is renewable. Page 4 of the pdf gives a clear outline: "Very high biorenewable content and forms gels with low polar liquids, mineral oils, emollient esters, castor oils, and hydrogenated polyisobutene." It is hydrophobic. Forms water in gelled oil emulsions with no restrictions from the aqueous phase. Forms oil gelled in water emulsions; allows inclusions of silicone fluids. It is a gloss enhancer, pigment dispersing agent, water repellent agent, structurant, rheology modifer, SPF enhancer, actives delivery and retention."

 

Ethylhexlglycerin

 

This is a preservative synthesized from grains and plants. It also contains glycerin. It has been used to reduce the redness in eczema. It is water soluble and helps keep water and oil from separating. It has been used as an alternative to parabens.

 

Ethylhexyl Palmitate

 

C24 H48 O2. Ethylhexyl Palmitate is a derivative of palm oil, which is a known environmental concern. Massive amounts of rainforests in South East Asia have to be cut down and stripped to make room to grow the palms. This in turn is endangering the orangutan and other species.

 

Palm oil is a saturated vegetable fat. Ethylhexyl palmitate is a combination of Palmitic acid and 2-ethylhexanol. They reacted on a molecular level to form a colorless, liquid, which is referred to as a fatty ester. Ethylhexyl palmitate is used in cosmetic formulations as a solvent, carrying agent, pigment wetting agent, fragrance fixative and emollient. Its dry-slip skin feel is similar to some silicone derivatives and it is structurally as close to dimethicone as possible. It can cause mild irritation when used at higher amounts such as 40-50%.  All in all it is considered safe.

 

It is saturated fatty ester and is used in an oil form. It comes from palm oil and is used as a natural alternative to silicone because of the texture and silky feeling. Its most common use comes from it's application as a wetting pigment agent, an emollient, and help perfume products keep their scent (fixatives). It is comedogenic, so it can clog pores and cause breakouts.

 

On page 2 of the CIR review of Ethylhexyl Palmitate mentioned that many of the cosmetic companies did not submit the amount of Ethylhexyl Palmitate (or similar palmitates), but the CIR assumes that these amounts are below 11% (CIR).

 

It seems mathematically hard to believe that in Wet n' Wild's Queen of the Dead Glitter Palette the dose is below 11% given that it is the 3rd ingredient listed. The ingredients are suppose to be listed from most to least.

 

Other Names: Octyl Palmitate

 

 

 

Ferric Ferrocyanide (CI 77510)

 

From wikipedia, "Prussian blue lent its name to prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide), which was derived from it. In Germany, hydrogen cyanide is called Blausäure ("blue acid"), and Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac gave cyanide its name, from the Greek word κυανός (kyanos, "blue"), because of the color of Prussian blue.

Prussian blue is produced by oxidation of ferrous ferrocyanide salts" (wikipedia).

 

There was a lot of controversy surrounding the use of Ferric Ferrocyanide being used in lipsticks. It isn't approved by the FDA for use around the lips. The controversy was about Doe Deer from Lime Crime Cosmetics using Ferric Ferrocyanide in her lipsticks and then removing the ingredient from her list after people starting blogging.

 

Other Names: Prussian Blue, Berlin Blue, Parisian Blue, Ferric hexacyanoferrate, Iron(III) ferrocyanide, Iron(III) hexacyanoferrat(II)

 

Fragrance/Parfum

 

Products on our list that contain Fragrance: Aveeno:Positively Radiant Brightening Cleanser

 

 

 

Glycerin

 

Glycerin is a safe, naturally occurring fat (triglyceride). It is used as a humectant and lubricant in the cosmetic industry. It does have other uses and you may see it pop up on your food and medical labels. It is rarely made synthetically, so it is derived from animal and plant fats. It comes from many palm and soy bean oils. Typically when it comes from animals it is labeled "glycerine", but there is no real way of knowing since cosmetic industry is not required to tell you what source they got the glycerin from (chemical, animal or plant). To my knowledge, the most effective way to make glycerin is from soy and palm oils.

 

You can mix a little glycerin with witch hazel and rosewater for a good homemade toner.

 

Glyceryl Oleate

 

This is glycerin and oleic acid. Oleic acid is derived from olives. It is used as an emulsifier and thickener. It is considered safe and non toxic.

 

Products on our list that contain Glyceryl Oleate: Aveeno:Positively Radiant Brightening Cleanser, Burt's Bees: Brightening Daily Facial Cleanser with Daisy Extract, SOAP & GLORY: Face Soap And Clarity Facial Wash with Vitamin C

 

Glycine Soja (Soybean) Oil

 

Comes from the soybean plants that are native to Asia. Once the oil is extracted from the soybeans is contains linoleic, triglycerides of oleic, and saturated acids.

 

Glycine Soja (Soybean) Protein

 

This products seems fairly benign. It comes from mainly from soybeans that are found in Asia. The protein version goes through a hydrolyzed processes, which means water is used to break down the amino acid (proteins) into a workable emollient for the skin. Once the oil is extracted from the soybeans it contains linoleic, triglycerides of oleic, and saturated acids. Extremely similar to Glycine Soja Oil.

 

Glycine Soja (Soybean) Seed Extract

 

 

 

Hydrogenated Polydecene

 

This is another emollient that reduces tackiness of a product. It also appears to be some kind of olefin. An olefin is typically in cheap carpets. It repels oils. If you spill oil on your carpet, it will never come out, but stay on the surface. Many people are allergic to olefin, but are unaware because there aren't many chemical allergy tests (Citation).

 

 

 

Isododecane

 

Isododecane is a safe, effective and frequently used emollient. It is used to help ingredients spread evenly over the skin. It does not absorb past the epithelial tissue, so it won't absorb into the blood stream (Citation).

 

Iron Oxides (CI 77491, CI 77499) (Black and Red Colorings)

 

Iron Oxides are a form of iron and oxygen coming together to form a rust color. You know what happens when something rusts. It's normally because it's made from iron. The pigment form is used for coloring cosmetics and produce deep earth colors such as browns, golds, oranges, yellows, deep reds, and even black. Umbers and Sienna come from the pigments of iron oxides. Iron Oxides are great for makeup because "They’re resistant to moisture, don’t easily bleed or smear and have "staying power" so you don’t have to keep reapplying your eye shadow or blush. They also create intense pigments that have a rich color" (skinstore).

 

Iron Oxides are made in a lab even though they do occur in nature. Creation of Iron Oxides in a lab insures that the product is free of impurities. Here is a comprehensive list of all the colors and their numbers of the different iron oxide colors:  Iron Oxide shade card

 

CI 77499 is a black iron oxide.

 

CI 77491 is a red Iron Oxide.

 

 

 

Kaolin

 

Kaolin is a naturally occurring soft-white clay. The principle mineral found in kaolin is kaolinite. Kaolin helps the eyeshadows from caking so that it doesn't form lumps. It is very absorbent and helps stabilize the ingredients. Other than it's application in cosmetics, kaolin is the number one ingredient in most masks.

 

 

 

Lauryl Methyl Gluceth-10 Hydroxypropyldimonium Chloride

 

Products on our list that contain Lauryl Methyl Gluceth-10 Hydroxypropyldimonium Chloride: Aveeno:Positively Radiant Brightening Cleanser

 

Lauroyl Lysine

 

Lauroyl Lysine is a natural derivative from fatty coconut oils. A surfactant and binding agent. It is used in conditioners, eye shadows, creams and gels. As of now, it is 100% safe (Truth In Aging).

 

 

 

Magnesium Stearate

 

"Magnesium stearate is created by the reaction of sodium stearate with magnesium sulfate" (wiki). Not only is Magnesium stearate used in cosmetics, it is used in food and is considered generally safe. Magnesium stearate is not soluble in water, yet it helps oil from separating from water while enlarging and bulking up the oil component (cosmeticinfo.org).

 

Magnesium Myristate

 

Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral found elementally in the periodic table. It is one of the essential minerals that we need in our bodies to function properly. Magnesium regulates enzymes, which allows the other cells to bond to magnesium. Magnesium helps ATP cells, energize the body, aid in cell reproduction, and helps in active DNA construction (ancient minerals).

 

Myristate is a fatty acid. When magnesium and myristate are combined they provide cosmetics with a soft, buttery feeling. The myristate helps to repel water, as do most fatty acid. If you are worried about any cosmetic ingredients being absorbed past the epithelial tissues, then don't worry with this one. Everyone needs Magnesium in the body to help it function. This is an extremely safe product.

 

Methylparaben

 

There have been some "studies" done linking parabens to natural foods such as blueberries and cloudberries. According to the EWG, these studies were done by the companies supporting these additives in their products  (EWG).

 

Methyl on its own is a methane group that is not very reactive and hard to destabilize. It is very nonreactive even with confronted with the strongest acids (wiki). This is why it is a good preservative because it's very hard to break down.

 

Methylparaben is a preservative to prevent cosmetics from forming bacteria. This keeps the products fresh and clean. It is absorbed through the skin and in the intestines, but is excreted in the urine. According to a recent study, methylparaben is does not build up in the body (science direct).

 

In contrast to science direct, Dr. Phillipa Darbre at Reading University has studied the links between breast cancer and parabens. Methylparaben mimics estrogen when in the body. Doses of estrogen that are higher than normal do cause cancer. This is well cited, peer reviewed evidence in the science community. Rita Arditti cited several of Dr. Darbre interviews and offers comprehensive summary of the links between breast cancers and parabens (Mercola).  For more studies conducted by Darbre see the NIH link.

 

Mica

 

Mica is a safe mineral that has been used in cosmetics for thousands of years. It adds color and sparkle to products. The only health issue mica could cause is inhalation by miners who inhale a lot of silicate and mineral dust. In your cosmetics, it is fine, benign and safe.

 

Microcrystalline Wax

 

This is another name for a petroleum based product turned into a wax.

 

Other Names: Cera Microcristallina

 

Mineral Oil

 

Mineral Oil is a petroleum based oil. Its name is misleading in the cosmetic industry due to the branding and marketing of mineral makeup. According to Dr. Frank Lipman, it's not even good for your skin. It clogs pores and it offers zip in nutritional value. There are two different grades. A grade that is contaminated and used industrially on cars and a cosmetic grade.

 

Other Names: Paraffin Oil

 

 

 

Nylon-12

 

Nylon-12 is a long synthetic molecules (polymer) made up of 12 carbon atoms. It is used for a wide variety of things including food packing, insulating cable wires, coating metals and acting as a bulking agent in some cosmetics. It is also called an opacifying agent, which means it dyes the product white.

 

Because it's a polymer composed of a long chain of molecules, it sits on top of the skin creating a smooth look. This is why it is called "anti-aging." This long polymer chain also prevents Nylon's from penetrating the skin (TIA).

 

 

 

Octyldodecanol

 

A long chain fatty acid with a total of 20 carbon molecules. It is a clear liquid. It is used as an emulsion (thickener) and as a lubricant on the skin. It has an indefinite shelf life. Non greasy and non clogging. Makes an excellent pigment carrier for lipsticks. Couples easily with waxes (good for lipsticks!). Has been found to be non toxic orally in lab rats (CIR).

 

O-cymen-5-ol

 

This is a preservative used in cosmetics to help prolong the shelf life. Most products that contain o-cymen-5-ol can be used for up to 2 years or longer. It is antifungal, antibacterial, and destroys bad odors, which is why it is also used in perfumes. The issue with o-cymen-5-ol is that different countries have different guidelines. It can lighten the skin and studies in Japan have discovered neuro toxicity in animals. It is absorbed through the epithelial tissues, processed through the kidney and livers and then excreted. You can read the peer reviewed article here. It is only approved in .5% concentration per 100 grams in the USA and .1% in Japan and Europe (Truth in Aging).

 

Ozokerite

 

The production of ozokerite produces tonnes of waste. Here is one article from ESBCO. Ozokerite is in many cosmetics. It is in the mineral/oil/petro category.

 

Other Names: Ceresin

 

 

PEG-16 Soy Sterol

 

Products on our list that contain PEG-16 Soy Sterol: Aveeno: Positively Radiant Brightening Cleanser

 

PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate

 

This ingredient should be broken down for a full understanding of how and what it is. A PEG stands for polyethylene glycols, which are long chains of hydro loving glycols. The number after the PEG can range from 1-100. In this scale the lower the number the less the product will absorb into your skin. The number is also in reference to the molecular weight of the molecule. PEGs are used for a variety of things and not just cosmetics. It is nontoxic on it's own. The PEG helps link the other ingredients in the formula. In PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate, the PEG helps link the sorbitan and the laurate together.

 

Sorbitan is used as a surfactant and emulsifying agent. It is a dehydrated form of sorbitol, the sugar sweetner. Sorbitol is also used in cosmetics as a thickener and humectant.

 

Laurate comes from the Lauric Acid family. They are fatty acids or triglycerides that originate from coconut milk, coconut oil, laurel oil, and palm kernel oil. Because of the chemical processes that these original oils go through, there is very little "natural" value left to them.

 

The one caveat about PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate (and other PEGs) is that they have to go through an steam cleaning processes called ethoxylation. Through this process the carcinogen 1,4-Dioxane is left in the fatty ester chain (PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate).

 

All of these polysorbate ingredients are related in that they have a common core structure of sorbitan or sorbitol etherified with PEG chains, and esterified with fatty acids.

 

According to the CIR, the following ingredients were included in the study done on PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate because they react similarly.

 

PEG-20 sorbitan cocoate, PEG-40 sorbitan diisostearate, PEG-2 sorbitan isostearate, PEG-5 sorbitan isostearate, PEG-20 sorbitan isostearate

PEG-40 sorbitan lanolate, PEG-75 sorbitan lanolate, PEG-10 sorbitan laurate, PEG-40 sorbitan laurate, PEG-44 sorbitan laurate, PEG-75 sorbitan laurate, PEG-80 sorbitan laurate, PEG-3 sorbitan oleate, PEG-6 sorbitan oleate, PEG-80 sorbitan palmitate, PEG-40 sorbitan perisostearate, PEG-40 sorbitan peroleate, PEG-3 sorbitan stearate, PEG-6 sorbitan stearate, PEG-40 sorbitan stearate, PEG-60 sorbitan stearate, PEG-20 sorbitan tetraoleate, PEG-30 sorbitan tetraoleate, PEG-40 sorbitan tetraoleate, PEG-60 sorbitan tetraoleate, PEG-60 sorbitan tetrastearate, PEG-20 sorbitan triisostearate, PEG-160 sorbitan triisostearate, PEG-18 sorbitan trioleate, Sorbeth-40 hexaoleate (previously PEG-40 sorbitol hexaoleate), Sorbeth-50 hexaoleate (previously PEG-50 sorbitol hexaoleate), Sorbeth-30 tetraoleate laurate (previously PEG-30

sorbitol tetraoleate laurate), Sorbeth-60 tetrastearate (previously PEG-60 sorbitol tetrastearate), 2PEG-20 sorbitan oleate, PEG-40 sorbitan oleate, PEG-4 sorbitan stearate, PEG-4 sorbitan triisostearate, PEG-2 sorbitan trioleate, PEG-3 sorbitan tristearate, Sorbeth-2 beeswax, Sorbeth-2 cocoate, Sorbeth-2 hexacaprylate/caprate, Sorbeth-12 hexacocoate, Sorbeth-2 hexaisostearate, Sorbeth-2 hexalaurate, Sorbeth-2 hexaoleate, Sorbeth-6 hexastearate, Sorbeth-150 hexastearate, Sorbeth-3 isostearate, Sorbeth-6 laurate

Sorbeth-2/oleate/dimer dilinoleate crosspolymer, Sorbeth-20 pentaisostearate, Sorbeth-30 pentaisostearate, Sorbeth-40 pentaisostearate

Sorbeth-50 pentaisostearate, Sorbeth-40 pentaoleate, Sorbeth-20 tetraisostearate, Sorbeth-30 tetraisostearate, Sorbeth-40 tetraisostearate

Sorbeth-50 tetraisostearate, Sorbeth-4 tetraoleate, Sorbeth-6 tetraoleate, Sorbeth-30 tetraoleate, Sorbeth-40 tetraoleate, Sorbeth-60 tetraoleate

Sorbeth-3 tristearate, Sorbeth-160 tristearate, Sorbeth-450 tristearate

 

Perlite

 

Perlite is a volcanic rock that has water trapped inside it. When heated, the water is released expanding, "to a brilliant white, due to the reflectivity of the trapped bubbles" (wiki).

 

Phenoxyethanol

 

Phenoxyethanol is preservative. It is produced naturally in green tea, but for the production of cosmetics it is reproduced in a lab. It is considered safe and a lot of products contain this preservative. This is a preservative that acts like a bactericide, disinfectant, antiseptic and antibiotic. It is also one of the few preservatives that does not release formaldehyde. According to wikipedia, it is also an incest repellent and a perfume fixative (wiki).

 

It is a now common preservative and the Honest Company uses it. I have a link to Jessica Alba's response to Phenoxyethanol as synthesized green tea (Honest Co Blog).

 

But According to Truth in Aging, just because something is a derivative of green tea, doesn't mean that it's safe. When ingested into the body, the components are broken down into phenol and acetate. Acetate is a paint remover. Phenol can react with the body by inhibiting the immune response (Truth in Aging).

 

According to the Journal of Toxicity, 1% or less is an okay quantity to use. It is another glycol that is used as a preservative to replace parabens. It is approved and effective preservative used at 1-2.2% concentration.

 

Others Names: Ethylene Glycol Monophenyl Ether.

 

Phenyl Trimethicone

 

Another plastic made from silica, which is very similar to dimethicone (probably less expensive).

 

Polybutene

 

Polybutene is a plasticizer used in a variety of products including car engines, lipsticks and wet eye shadows.

 

Polyethylene

 

A carbo hydrogen plastic. The most widely used plastic in the world. These are the microbeads that have been on the news. They are not able to properly degrade in the sewer systems. Used as eyeliners, mascara, eye shadows, eyebrow pencils, lipstick, blushes, face powders and foundations, as well as in skin cleansers and skin care products, because of its versatile properties as an abrasive ingredient, adhesive, binder, bulking agent, emulsion stabilizer, film former, oral care agent and as a viscosity increasing agent. According to TruthinAging, Polyethylene has been known to cause kidney toxicity when ingested.

 

The CIR has found that polyethylene is non toxic and non irritating (CIR). Polyethylene comes in small plastic beads that look a lot like beeswax pellets.

 

Polyethylene Terephthalate

 

It is abbreviated at PET or PETE. 60% of all production of PET is used as fibers and is commonly referred to as polyester. PET is also used in the production of soda bottles. As far as makeup is concerned it does make an excellent barrier for water.

 

PET is  used in makeup as a glitter. The PET as well as aluminum are broken down into very small units, usually .0008 hex. The FDA does not currently approve of PET with aluminum being used as a glitter, but seems to be "okay" with the .0008 hex units because these won't scratch the cornea. BUT they are still in the process of reviewing PET for use in cosmetics, but operate on a voluntary submission basis and when they have more information they can enforce their policy of not allowing PET in cosmetics. Glitter and Phyrra

 

Other names: PET or PETE, Polyester

 

Polyisobutylene

 

A rubber that is gas impermeable. Polyisobutylene helps with lubrications and pigment dispersion. Both Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene increase the thickness of the lipid (oil) portion of cosmetics and personal care products. Polyisobutene dries to form a thin coating on the skin, hair or nails, and is used to hold together the ingredients of a compressed cake. Hydrogenated Polyisobutene acts as a lubricant on the skin's surface, which gives the skin a soft and smooth appearance (cosmeticsinfo.org).

 

Other names: Butyl Rubber

 

Polymethylsilsesquioxane

 

This is a silicone based product that repels water. The idea that it can repel sweat and moister makes it ideal for a setting powder. It's main use is in shampoos and conditioners. According the the Cosmetic Ingredient Review board, Polymethylsilsesquioxane does not enter into the lungs from sprays or dust from setting powders. The only issue with polymethylsilsesquioxane is that there is a lack of scientific data. The CIR has requested toxicology reports. There has only been on performed on test rabbits and the results concluded that there were no adverse reactions.

 

It is used in Smashbox loose powder.

 

Other names are POLYMETHYLSILSESQUIOXANE, METHYL SILSESQUIOXANE, METHYLSILSESQUIOXANE, POLYMETHYL SILSESQUIOXANE, SILSESQUIOXANES

 

 

Polyquaternium

 

Each numerical designation is assigned in the order in which they were developed. Each Polyquaternium reacts in a different manner. All are cationic polymers and that's where the similarities end. What is a cationic polymer? A polymer is any long chain of chemicals. They can be proteins, fatty acid chains, etc. It's like in math when you learned that an octagon and hexagon were both polygons.

 

Potassium Sorbate

 

Potassium sorbate is a common preservative used in cosmetics and foods. It is used to prevent molds and yeasts from forming and is effective in doing so (Honest CO).

 

It is also antimicrobial. According to a study done at the National Institute of Health (NIH), it is considered safe both in vivo, in vitro, and orally. Higher dosages for external use on the skin are not approved for general use, but are considered safe by this study. The only known side effects are from allergic reactions in very few people. It is considered safe by the FDA.

 

Products on our list that contain potassium sorbate: SmashBox Loose Powder

 

Other Names:  E202.

 

Propylparaben

 

Propylparaben is an endocrine disruptor and can affect male rat's fertility. In a recent study, it was found in the urine of 92 out of 100 people. It is especially irritating on broken skin and can cause allergic reactions (EWG). Parabens in general, including Propylparaben, are used in very low amounts such as 0.01 to 0.3%.

 

 

 

 

Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil

 

Ricinus Oil, more commonly known as Castor Seed Oil or Castor Oil has been used for thousands of years for a variety of products. It is considered extremely safe in the use of cosmetics. Castor Oil is used in lipsticks as an emollient and helps bind the product.

 

Other purposes include making homemade and commercial hair remedies which promote hair growth and moisture to dry hair (LiveStrong).

 

 

 

 

Silica

 

Silica is found naturally from quartz crystals.

 

Some controversy surrounds silica in regard to inhalation and cancer. This inhalation only occurs during the mining process when workers are blasting the rocks and inhaling millions of tiny particles (OSHA).

 

Silica gel packs are often found in food packages and vitamins bottles as an absorbent. In cosmetics, especially eyeshadow, it absorbs sweat, moisture and oils from the skin making it stay on longer and not cake against the skin. Silica is the natural alternative to man made silicone compounds such as dimethicone and Cyclopentasiloxane.

 

Other Names: Silicon Dioxide

 

Silica Dimethyl Silylate

 

"Anticaking agent, bulking agent, slip modifier, viscosity increasing agent, emollient, and most often as a suspending agent," (Truth in Aging).

 

Sodium Benzoate

 

Sodium Benzoate is a common preservative that is used in foods and cosmetics. It has been linked to premature births in test animals in a study published by the International Journal of Toxicology, but this was through ingestion and doesn't have anything to do with cosmetic application. There is a lot of propaganda and fear mongering surrounding Sodium Benzoate. For instance, the author of  NaturallySavvy claims that Sodium Benzoate causes ADHD in children, but when you click on her citation from the Mayo Clinic the Mayo Clinic states in the second line, "There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)."

 

So, is Sodium Benzoate safe? Compared to most preservatives, yes it is. The only alternative is to buy a product without a preservative and hope it doesn't go rancid.

 

Products that contain Sodium Benzoate: Smashbox Loose Powder

 

Other Names: E211, Benzoic acid, Benzene, Sodium Benzoate, or Benzoate

 

Sodium Hydroxide

 

 

Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES)

 

This is a common surfactant, foaming agent found in cleansers and shampoos. It has been considered safe by the CIR. It can cause eye irritation and should not be ingested. The eye irritation should be mild depending on the concentration of the product getting into the eyes. No truly adverse and horrifying effects have happened when Sodium Laureth Sulfate has inadvertently dripped into the eyes. Just rinse with cool water and you should be fine.

 

One of the real concerns with SLES is that during the creation process it can become contaminated with 1,4 dioxane, which is a by product and a carcinogen.

 

Link to Mercola SLES/SLS/ALS

 

Other Names: Ammonium Laureth Sulfate.

 

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)

 

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate is a different ingredient than Sodium Laureth Sulfate. It is often confused because the names sounds so similar.

 

According to an an anti-SLS website, SLS should be avoided. They encourage an SLS free products. They cite an abstract from

 

Sage Journals and the Cosmetic Ingredient Review has a very similarly phrased article on their PDF website.

 

Products that contain Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: Clariol: Herbal Essences Shampoo, Aveeno Smart Essentials Daily Detoxifying Scrub for the face (listed as Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate)

 

Other names: Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate

 

Sorbic Acid

 

Sorbic Acid is another preservative usually used in the food industry. It is an organic compound with carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. It was original discovered by distillation of unripe rowan berries.

 

Soyamidopropyl Betaine

 

Products that contain Sodium Soyamidopropyl Betaine: Aveeno:Positively Radiant Brightening Cleanser

 

Synthetic Fluorphlogopite

 

This is a synthetic version of the mineral phlogopite. It can be used up to 67% in cosmetics such as eye shadows and powders (TruthinAging).

 

Synthetic Fluorphlogopite is a bulking agent. It is mainly composed of magnesium aluminum silicate sheets. According to the CIR, no toxic affects were reported. It is not absorbed through the dermal layers of the skin (CIR).

 

Used as a bulking agent in cosmetics. It is composed of man made silica magnesium sheets held together by loose potassium ion bonds. It is a substitute for fluorine. (Cosmetic Info)

 

Synthetic Wax

 

Synthetic Wax is a mixture of mineral and petroleum oils made to mimic beeswax. It is often marketed to vegans.

 

 

 

Talc

 

Talc is a naturally occurring mineral that has been in cosmetics for hundreds of years. It is composed of magnesium, silicon, oxygen, and hydrogen. In cosmetics it can prevent caking, absorb oils, set foundation (absorb the oils) and make your skin look really translucent or white. For a darker skinned person, it can even be used as a highlighter. There are concerns that talc contains asbestos. Asbestos is another naturally occurring mineral found in the earth. Both talc and asbestos are silicate minerals and are usually found close together. This is the concern with talc being "carcinogenic". Talc is not carcinogenic, but asbestos is and asbestos can be mined accidentally with talc and unknowingly put in with talc if there is sloppy mining or lack of care (FDA).

 

Talc is a common mineral found around the world. It is commonly used in baby powder as talcum powder. It is primarily made up of magnesium, silicon, and oxygen. It is used as anti-caking agent and drying agent (absorbent).

 

Magnesium Silicate: This is just another word for Talc. I wonder if this talc does something to the parabens. Does it hold them all together? Do they mix the parabens with magnesium silicate?

 

Tin Oxide

 

Tin oxide is a colorant used in almost all cosmetics. It is composed of mainly tin and around 11% oxygen. SnO.

 

Tin Oxides is a white metal. The CIR noted, "Tin(IV) oxide functions as an abrasive, bulking, and opacifying agent in cosmetic products, and is used at concentrations up to 0.4 % in rinse-off products and up to 1.3 % in leave-on products. In practice, 95% to 99% of the droplets/particles released from cosmetic sprays have aerodynamic equivalent diameters >10 µm.12,13,14,15 Therefore, most droplets/particles incidentally inhaled from cosmetic sprays would be deposited in the nasopharyngeal and bronchial regions and would not be respirable (i.e., they would not enter the lungs) to any appreciable amount."  (CIR) The max concentration in eyeshadow is 1.3%. All tests performed on rats, rabbits and women were benign and no adverse affects resulted from the tests.

 

Titanium Dioxide

 

This is a white pigment, an absorbent, and a sunscreen. It is mainly used in eyeshadows and lipsticks as a white pigment will be referred to with it's #CI77891 or "titanium white". There has been some controversy whether or not Titanium Dioxide is carcinogenic. This mainly comes from a study conducted in 1985 by Lee, Trochimowicz & Reinhardt, "Pulmonary Response of Rats Exposed to Titanium Dioxide by Inhalation for Two Years".

The study found that over long periods of inhalation in large doses the rats developed tumors. This is very misleading to humans because the evidence is complete erroneous. Why is it erroneous? How was it inhaled? A powder form? This could be a problem for loose powders, but not eyeshadow, right? How much Titanium Dioxide would it take to form tumors in humans?

 

Other names: #CI77891 or titanium white

 

Tocopherol

 

Another name for Vitamin E.

 

Tocopheryl Acetate

 

This is a fancy word for Vitamin E, but with acetate added to it. Acetate is an acid and prolongs the shelf life of vitamin E. The tocopheryl part can penetrate beyond the skin's dermal layers to provide for an antioxidant for the body (EPA).

 

Tridecyl Trimellitate

 

"TDTM Tridecyl Trimellitate is a special emollient ester produced from tri-decyl alcohol and trimellitic acid.  This non-ionic liquid product is uncommonly stable to hydrolysis over a wide pH range and is compatible with all anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants and other components of personal care and cosmetic formulations." and "The heavy, syrupy viscosity of Tridecyl Trimellitate makes it very useful in personal care and cosmetic products requiring a soft, velvety after feel and is especially recommended in long term leave-on products such as night creams and eye area treatments.  Its low toxicity and clean-smooth feel make it a useful component in the full spectrum of skin and hair care formulations. TDTM, when used to increase viscosity or “body” of emulsions, does not increase “drag” as do traditional waxy substances." (Diolube)

 

"Since TDTM is odorless and tasteless, assists in uniform application of products, has a slight “tack”, and confers a highly desirable gloss, it is especially recommended for lipstick and lip-gloss formulation.  Attached is an illustrative example of a high quality lipstick formulation in which TDTM serves multiple functions: emollient, glossing agent, pigment dispersant and wax softener." (Diolube)

 

TDTM is approved in Japan for use in lipstick formulations to the maximum level of 7.5%.

 

A plasticizer, emollient, and thickener. It is considered safe by the CIR. Insoluble in water, which makes it a good for a lipstick because it won't absorb past the epithelial tissue. When ingested in test rats, tridecyl trimellitate was excreted in the urine and fecal matter (CIR). It is used as a substitute for mineral oil.

 

Triisostearin

 

Triisostearin is part of the glycol family. It is an emollient and a viscosity controlling (nonaquaeous) product. It does not occur naturally in nature. According to a study by the NIH, "Tristearin at 0.32% in a commercial product induced transient, mild to moderate, ocular irritation after instillation into the eyes of human subjects. Based on the enhancement of penetration of other chemicals by skin treatment with glyceryl triesters, it is recommended that care be exercised in using them in cosmetic products." According to the study, it may also cause tumors in some lab animals when ingested.

 

HDI/Trimethylol Hexyllactone Crosspolymer

 

HDI/Trimethylol Hexyllactone Crosspolymer is a synthetic polymer. It was very difficult finding information about this ingredient. According to the Good Scents Company, it is used as an anti-caking ingredient and helps to conceal wrinkles.

 

Trimethylsiloxysilicate

 

Trimethylsiloxysilicate is a silicone product.  According to Cosmetics and Toiletries.com it is a "cross-linked silicone resin" and it claims to hold pigments in place.

 

Tetrasodium EDTA

 

Products that contain Tetrasodium EDTA: Aveeno:Positively Radiant Brightening Cleanser, SOAP & GLORY: Face Soap And Clarity Facial Wash with Vitamin C,

 

Titanium Dioxide (CI 77891)

 

This is a white pigment, an absorbent, and a sunscreen. It is mainly used in eyeshadows and lipsticks as a white pigment will be referred to with it's #CI77891 or "titanium white". There has been some controversy whether or not Titanium Dioxide is carcinogenic. This mainly comes from a study conducted in 1985 by Lee, Trochimowicz & Reinhardt, "Pulmonary Response of Rats Exposed to Titanium Dioxide by Inhalation for Two Years".

The study found that over long periods of inhalation in large doses the rats developed tumors. This is very misleading to humans because the evidence is complete erroneous. Why is it erroneous? How was it inhaled? A powder form? This could be a problem for loose powders, but not eyeshadow, right? How much Titanium Dioxide would it take to form tumors in humans?

 

Other names: #CI77891 or titanium white

 

 

 

Ultramarines

 

Up until the 1960s and 1970s, ultramarines, micas and blues colors use to be mined as lapiz lazuli. This was until the FDA found harsh trace minerals such as lead, mercury, and arsenic in the beautiful blue rock. The ban was enacted for cosmetic grade to protect consumers. Conveniently, it was by far cheaper to produce a synthetic version of micas and oxides (ultramarines) in a lab.

 

If you do decide to buy from China, please be aware that a lot of the Ultramarines do not go through the strict standards we have in the USA.

 

For more information on approved colorants visit the FDA's comprehensive list.

 

 

 

Yellow 5 Lake (CI 19140)

 

Yellow 5 Lake has an aluminum substrate. The Environmental Working Group who sited P suggested, "FD&C and D&C colors are coaltar (bituminous coal) derivatives that are continously tested on animals due to their carcinogenic properties. Alternatives: grapes, beets, turmeric, saffron, carrots, chlorophyll, annatto, alkanet."

 

 

 

Zea Mays (Corn) Starch

 

An absorbent, binder and a thickener. It is taken from unripe corn cobs and ground finely.

 

Zinc Stearate

 

In cosmetics, zinc stearate is a lubricant and thickening agent to improve texture (wikipedia). It helps emulsions from separating into their oil components (Cosmeticsinfo).

 





Acrylates Copolymer:

Links about copolymer chemical structure

Cosmetic Info.com

detailed chemical structure

Links about acrylates chemical structure

detailed chemical structure of acrylates

Acrylates Copolymer is any two monomers of acrylates that are joined together and called a copolymer. A monomer is a chain of one type of acrylate, so a copolymer is a chain that consists of two or more acrylates. More information about what a copolymer is can be found at this Copolymer Link. What exactly is in an ingredient that lists Acrylate Copolymer is most likely an acrylate acid and methacrylic acid bonded together with various other monomers of acrylates. Generally speaking an acrylate is a type of rubber or plastic that can function in cleansers for beauty products to absorb the water and allow the product to glide over your skin.

Apparently the levels found in cosmetics (though we don't actually know the levels because we don't have the percentage or amounts of the ingredients and since they are released only voluntarily..) are safe, but acrylates copolymers are carcinogenic to lab rats. International Journal of Toxicology

Alumina

According to wiki, alumina is short for aluminium oxide. It is used in cosmetics as a filler wiki



Beeswax

A natural wax from bees. Worker bees convert honey into wax to make the honeycomb part. Beeswax co

Bis-Diglyceryl Polyacyladipate-2

Mixed fatty acid esters used as an emollient in cosmetics. It is a non-animal lanolin substitute, so many vegan companies will use this. It has " high water-binding properties, excellent adhesion to the skin and glossy finish." (Truth In Aging) Truth in Aging claims that Bis-Diglyceryl Polyacyladipate-2 is mildly toxic, yet a CIR assessment found no toxicity. Slight mild irritation occurred in human test subject with known allergies, but reversed themselves within 24 hours upon removal of Bis-Diglyceryl Polyacyladipate-2. CIR

Blue 1 Lake (CI 42090)

This is a synthetic dye that is a blue-red. The word "lake" refers to a substrate that was mixed with Blue 1 to create a new color, which is a blue-red. We don't know what substrate they used such as aluminium, sodium, etc. For more information on colorants see the Appendix.

Butylene Glycol

Butylene Glycol is a humectant and conditioning agent. The CIR has a positive spin on Butylene Glycol. Butylene Glycol is derived from acetaldehyde. Through the oxidation process with nickel, copper and other heavy metals, the creation of Butylene Glycol is derived. Acetaldehyde is a known carcinogen and a dangerous one, since acetaldehyde is found floating through the air. According to a report published plos.org it is "one of the most frequently found carcinogens". Does the process of the formation of butylene glycol poison the air?

Butyrospermum Parkii (shea) Butter

This is Shea Butter. It comes from the Shea Tree in Africa. It has a natural UV protection, it also contains natural vitamin A, E, and F. The oils in Shea Butter closely resemble the oils found in the sebaceous glands. It works great on dermitis. From TruthinAging.com, "Acts as a skin conditioning agent and viscosity (thickness) increasing agent."



Calcium Aluminum Borosilicate

This ingredient has borosilicate as well, but instead of calcium sodium it has calcium aluminum. What is the difference in the molecular compound? How does aluminum reaction to calcium and bororsilicate (silica and boron trioxide)?

Calcium Sodium Borosilicate

Calcium Sodium Borosilicate is finely ground glass crystals that are used as sparkle and irridescent colors (info) Borosilicate is a type of durable glass, which Pyrex is a brand name (wiki).

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride

Derived from the fatty acids of coconut and palm oil. They offer several key benefits: they offer a noticeable silkiness in products, they exhibit excellent anti-oxidant properties to extend the natural shelf life, they offer skin nurturing benefits due to the skin loving nature of the specific fatty acid esters, not seen with common Fractionated Coconut Oil, or other carrier oils, and they are especially suited to sensitive skin and oily skin. (Source) Good as carriers for fat soluble vitamins.

Caprylyl Glycol

Caprylyl Glycol is in the same family as propylene glycol. According to a 2010 study done by the CIR, Caprylyl Glycol and the other glycols are very safe (CIR) . I believe that all glycols are short chain sugar molecules, which are commonly referred to as alcohols.

Carmine other names(CI 75470, Cochineal, Carmine Acid and Crimson Lake)

Carmine is a natural dye that is non vegan. It is made from the cochineal insect. The Cochineal insect produces a poisonous acid, called carmic acid to protect themselves against predators. After the cochineal is dead and dried, the carmic acid is extracted. This is mixed with aluminium to make the bright red color.

It can produces an allergic reaction in some people, especially when used as a food additive, but some people are allergic to shellfish and peanuts too. This doesn't mean that carmine is toxic. What it does mean is that you can have an allergic reaction to carmine if you put it on your face or ingest it through licking your lipstick. It is not a known carcinogen, toxin or harmful to the environment, it is however, like many things, can be an allergen. Carmine is considered safe when tested on rats by the NIH.

Products that contain Carmine: SmashBox Loose Powder,

Cera Alba/Beeswax/Cire d'abeille:

This is natural wax made from honey bees.

Ceresin

A soft hydrocarbon wax found from shale rock from pertroleum production. Another name is ozokerite. It is used to bind or emulsify oils to water. Used as a substitute to beeswax.

Cetyl Dimethicone

Here is another Dimethicone, but this time is a Cetyl. Cetyl is a type of alcohol (dictionary.com) According to truthinaging, cetyl dimethicone keeps the oil and water from separating, acts as an emulsifer, surfactant, and eliminates any tacky feeling leaving the skin feeling smooth. It can also help spread the pigmentation.

Citric Acid

Citric Acid is a naturally occuring acid found in citrus fruits, especially lemons, limes and oranges. It was first discovered in 1893 from the mold from Penicillium by C. Wehmer. It has been produced synthetically since 1977 in mass production. Citric acid is a powerful chemical compound used for various purposes in various industries. In basic soap (even dishwashing soaps and face soaps) it is used as a chelating agent. Chelating is the ability to bind metals. If the water is hard, the citric acid reacts to soft the water, by bind the metals from the hard water. This gives it the ability to lather and suds, furthermore helping you rinse away any metals that might come into contact with your skin if you have hardwater.

This ability to chelate also helps to preserve the formula, by binding the metals that might contaminate the cosmetic. We don't want rust or any heavy metals in our cosmetics, do we?

Chromium Oxide Greens (CI 77288)

Chromium Oxide is a natural mineral called eskolaite. Eskolaite is also found in meteorites.(wikipedia) Chromium Oxide Green is a straight color and does not use a substrate such as aluminum.

Coco Glucoside

This product is a surfactant, which makes it easy.....

Coco-Caprylate/Caprate

This is an emollient made from the esters of Coconut Fatty Alcohol and Caprylic Acids. It is known to be safe without any health concerns. It is a natural derivative. It is biodegradable and often used as a silicone substitute because of its natural slip and glide.

This woman here tests out the ingredients on her own skin! What an amazing woman!

Ingredient in SmashBox's Loose Powder

Cocamidopropyl Betaine

This product is a surfactant that originally comes from coconuts, which is why manufacturers place a natural label on their products. It goes through a long chemical chain that results in a multipurpose chemical compound that is sutiable for use as a detergent, foaming agent, thickener, antistatic agent, and can be used as an antiseptic product. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review board has assessed cocamidopropyl Betaine as safe in rinse off formulas that are at levels under 30%. Some new studies have concluded that a small number of people are sensitive to some of the ingredients in cocamidopropyl betaine, which they call impurities. (CIR)

Cyclopentasiloxane

This is a silicone. Silicone is like a plastic because it can react like a plastic, but it is a polymer made of a long chain of silicon, oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms. It repels water from the skin and fills in fine lines so that the skin looks younger and smoother. It is a main ingredient in many foundations. It is also used in a lot of shampoos and conditioners to give the hair a silky feeling without adding addition weight. It does seem to have an adverse affect on the environment especially marine life. Since it repels water, it most likely does not biodegrade (find out more Laurelle) because it to go directly from sewers into the water systems such as lakes and streams. Fish then eat it and then we eat the fish. We are eating the plastics we use on a daily basis. Truth In Aging It is also called octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane. I found more information about it's toxicity here: http://www.annmariegianni.com/ingredient-watch-list-cyclotetrasiloxane-the-hair-conditioner-that-may-harm-our-waterways/

Cyclohexasiloxane
Cyclopentasiloxane

Silicone is like a plastic because it can react like a plastic, but it is a polymer made of a long chain of silicon, oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms. It repels water from the skin and fills in fine lines so that the skin looks younger and smoother. It is a main ingredient in many foundations. It is also used in a lot of shampoos and conditioners to give the hair a silky feeling without adding addition weight. It does seem to have an adverse affect on the environment especially marine life. Since it repels water, it most likely does not biodegrade (find out more Laurelle) because it to go directly from sewers into the water systems such as lakes and streams. Fish then eat it and then we eat the fish. We are eating the plastics we use on a daily basis. Truth In Aging It is also called octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane. I found more information about it's toxicity here: http://www.annmariegianni.com/ingredient-watch-list-cyclotetrasiloxane-the-hair-conditioner-that-may-harm-our-waterways/



Diisosteraryl Malate

A four carbon emollient and skin conditioner. It is primarily found in lipsticks. Diisosteararyl Malate is extremely safe and absolutely no toxicity was found in any test samples whether they were oral, intravenous or dermal. CIR

Dimethicone

Dimethicone is a silicone based oil. It repels water from the skin and is probably being used in this eyeshadow as a carrier for the pigments. Silicone is considered very safe because the molecules are not large enough to penetrate the pores. (kjbennett.com) Silicone is obviously used in plastic surgery inside people's bodies, so that gives me some comfort at the safety level. It is called "occulsive" because it sits ontop of the skin, which some people on the Internet argue makes the skin non breathable. Another argument is that it prevents other materials, especially oils from clogging the pores. Perhaps it can act as a barrier to all the other stuff in makeup? The problem with dimethicone is that it is not biodegradable and it repels water. So what happens after you wash it off and it goes down the drain? It must just sit on top of the water, but unlike a natural oil it won't break down. So are we just drinking plastic/silicone/dimethicone when our water is reused?

dimethicone, which is non-biodegradable and stays on top of the skin, which traps oils and bacteria underneath your skin.

DI-PPG-2 Myreth-10 Adipate

This product is added to surfactants, which strip away oil. DI-PPG-2 Myreth-10 Adipate helps to add back in emollience. The only problem with this product is that it goes through the ethoxylation process, which can result in trace amounts of 1,4-dioxane, a known carcinogen. This ingredient has not been reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR). Interestingly enough you can buy DI-PPG-2 Myreth-10 Adipate at the personalformulator website . PPG-2 is listed among many other chemicals, but not Myreth-10. Myreth-10 is listed separately. According to the Free Library, DI-PPG-2 Myreth-10 Adipate is gentle and effective. Another study supporting the use of DI-PPG-2 Myreth-10 Adipate can be found at Mattek.com

DMDM Hydantoin

Is a formaldehyde perservative. Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen. The CIR has published a reporting stating that in low doses (1%-2%), the formaldehyde laden DMDM Hydantoin is safe. People with formaldehyde sensitivities should not use it.



Ethylenediamine/Hydrogenated Dimer Dilinoleate Copolymer BIS-DI-C14-18 Alkyl Amide

This looks like a polymer that has been developed by Arizona Chemical Bio Renewable solutions. They claim that this product is renewable. Page 4 of the pdf gives a clear outline: Very high biorenewable content and forms gels with low polar liquids, mineral oils, emollient esters, castor oils, and hydrogenated polyisobutene. It is hydrophobic. Forms water in gelled oil emulsions with no restrictions from the aqueous phase. Forms oil gelled in water emulsions; allows inclusions of silicone fluids. It is a gloss enhancer, pigment dispering agent, water repellent agent, structurant, rheology modifer, SPF enhancer, actives delivery and retention.

Ethylhexlglycerin

This is a preservative synthesized from grains and plants. It also contains glycerin. It has been used to reduce the redness in excema. It is water soluble and helps keep water and oil from separating. It has been used as an alternative to parabens.

Ethylhexyl Palmitate

This is a close to dimethicone as you can get naturally. But the practice of cutting down palm oil trees are killing the natural rainforests.

Ethylhexyl Palmitate

C24 H48 O2 Also called Octyl Palmitate. A derivitive of palm oil, which is a known environmental concern because of the cutting of raw forests in Indonesia is endangering the Orangutan. Palm oil is a saturated vegetable fat. Ethylhexyl palmitate is a combination of Palmitic acid and 2-ethylhexanol. They reacted on a molecular level to form a colorless, liquid, which is refered to as a fatty ester. Ethylhexyl palmitate is used in cosmetic formulations as a solvent, carrying agent, pigment wetting agent, fragrance fixative and emollient. Its dry-slip skinfeel is similar to some silicone derivatives. (wikipedia) Can cause mild irritation when used at higher amounts such as 40-50%. (truthinaging.com) All in all it is considered safe.

Ethylhexyl Palmitate

It goes by another name called Octyl Palmitate. It is saturated fatty ester and is used in an oil form. It comes from palm oil and is used as a natural alternative to silicone because of the texture and silky feeling. Its most common use comes from it's application as a wetting pigment agent, an emollient, and help perfume products keep their scent (fixatives). It is comedogenic, so it can clog pores and cause breakouts.

Ethylhexyl Palmitate

On page 2 of the CIR review of Ethylhexyl Palmitate mentioned that many of the cosmetic companies did not submit the amount of Ethylhexyl Palmitate (or similar palmitates), but the CIR assumes that these amounts are below 11%. CIR It seems mathematically hard to believe that in Wet n' Wild's Queen of the Dead Glitter Palette the dose is below 11% given that it is the 3rd ingredient listed. The ingredients are suppose to be listed from most to least.



Fragrance/Parfum

Products on our list that contain Fragrance: Aveeno:Positively Radiant Brightening Cleanser



Glycerin

Glycerin is a safe, naturally occuring fat (triglyceride). It is used as a humectant and lubricant in the cosmetic industry. It does have other uses and you may see it pop up on your food and medical labels. It is rarely made synthetically, so it is derived from animal and plant fats. It comes from many palm and soy bean oils. Typically when it comes from animals it is labeled "glycerine", but there is no real way of knowing since cosmetic industry is not required to tell you what source they got the glycerin from (chemical, animal or plant). To my knowledge, the most effective way to make glycerin is from soy and palm oils. You can mix a little glycerin with witch hazel and rosewater for a good homemade toner.

Glyceryl Oleate

This is glycerin and oleic acid. Oleic acid is derived from olives. It is used as an emulsifier and thickener. It is considered safe and non toxic.

Glycine Soja (soybean) Oil

Comes from the soybean plants that are native to Asia. Once the oil is extracted from the soybeans is contains linoleic, triglycerides of oleic, and saturated acids. Soybeans

Glycine Soja (Soybean) Protein

This products seems fairly benign. It comes from mainly from soybeans that are found in asia (the stuff tofu is made from). The protein version goes through a hydrolyzed processes, which means water is used to break down the amino acid (proteins) into a workable emollient for the skin. Once the oil is extracted from the soybeans it contains linoleic, triglycerides of oleic, and saturated acids. Soybeans

Glycine Soja (Soybean) Seed Extract


Hydrogenated Polydecene

This is another emollient that reduces tackiness of a product, which maybe why this particular eyeshadow doesn't stick very well onto the skin. It also appears to be some kind of olefin (the stuff fabric is made out of?) Citation



Iron Oxides (CI 77491, CI 77499) (Black and Red Colorings)

Iron Oxides are a form of Iron and Oxygen coming together to form a rust color. You know what happens when something rusts. It's normally because it's made from iron. The pigment form is used for coloring cosmetics and produce deep earth colors such as browns, golds, oranges, yellows, deep reds, and even black. Umbers and Sienna come from the pigments of iron oxides. Iron Oxides are great for makeup because "They’re resistant to moisture, don’t easily bleed or smear and have "staying power" so you don’t have to keep reapplying your eye shadow or blush. They also create intense pigments that have a rich color." (skinstore)

Iron Oxides are made in a lab even though they do occur in nature. Creation of Iron Oxides in a lab insures that the product is free of impurities. Here is a pdf of the different iron oxide colors Iron Oxide shade card TCC

CI 77499 is a black iron oxide. CI 77491 is a red Iron Oxide. This link from sensient-cosmetics.com gives a comprehensive list of all the colors and their numbers.



Kaolin

Kaolin is a naturally occuring soft-white clay. The principle mineral found in kaolin is kaolinite. Kaolin helps the eyeshadows from caking so that it doesn't form lumps. It is very absorbant and helps stabilize the ingredients. Other than it's application in cosmetics, kaolin is the number one ingredient in most masks. I make a mask made from kaolin as a base and add essential oils and fresh herbs.



Lauryl Methyl Gluceth-10 Hydroxypropyldimonium Chloride

Products on our list that contain Lauryl Methyl Gluceth-10 Hydroxypropyldimonium Chloride: Aveeno:Positively Radiant Brightening Cleanser

Lauroyl Lysine

A surfactant and binding agent. Truth In Aging



Magnesium Stearate

"Magnesium stearate is created by the reaction of sodium stearate with magnesium sulfate."(wiki) Not only is Magnesium stearate used in cosmetics, it is used in food and is considered generally safe. Magnesium stearate is not soluble in water, yet it helps oil from separating from water while enlarging and bulking up the oil component. (cosmeticinfo.org)

Magnesium Myristate

Magnesium is a naturally occuring mineral found elementally in the periodic table. It is one of the essential minerals that we need in our bodies to function properly. Magnesium regulates enzymes, which allows the other cells to bong to magnesium and form regulatation. Magnesium helps ATP cells, energize the body, aid in cell reproduction, and helps in active DNA construction. ancient-minerals Myristate is a fatty acid. When Magnesium and Myristate are combined they provide cosmetics with a soft, buttery feeling. The myristate helps to repell water, as it is a fatty acid. If you are worried about any cosmetic ingredients being absorbed past the epithelial tissues, then don't worry with this one. Everyone need Magnesium in the body to help it function. This is an extremely safe product.

Methylparaben

There have been some "studies" done linking parabens to natural foods such as blueberries and cloudberries. According to the EWG, these studies were done by the companies supporting these additives in their products (EWG). Methyl on its own is a methane group that is not very reactive and hard to destabilize. It is very nonreactive even with confronted with the strongests acids (wiki). I suppose this is why it is a good preservative because it's very hard to break down.

Methylparaben is a preservative to prevent cosmetics from forming bacteria and keep it fresh. It is absorbed through the skin and in the intestines, but is excreted in the urine. According to a recent study, methylparaben is does not build up in the body. (science direct). In contrast to science direct, Dr. Phillipa Darbre at Reading University has studied the links between breast cancer and parabens. Methylparaben mimicks estrogen when in the body. Doses of estrogen that are higher than normal do cause cancer. Rita Arditti cites several of Dr. Darbre interviews and offers comphrensive summary of the links between breast cancers and parabens (Organic Consumers org) For more studies conducted by Darbre see the NIH link

Mica

Mica is a safe mineral that has been used in cosmetics for thousands of years. It adds color and sparkle to products. The only health issue mica could cause is inhalation by miners who inhale a lot of silicate and mineral dust. In your cosmetics, it is fine, benign and safe.

Microcrystalline Wax

This is another name for a petroleum based product turned into a wax.

Mineral Oil

Mineral Oil is a petroleum based oil. It's name seems very misleading to me. I always assumed it had some kind of beneficial mineral effects.According to Dr. Frank Lipman , Apparently it's not even good for your skin. It clogs pores and it offers zip in nutritional value. There are two different grades. A grade that is contaminated and used industrially on cars and a cosmetic grade.



Nylon-12

Nylon-12 is a long synthetic molecules (polymer) made up of 12 carbon atoms. It is used for a wide variety of things including food packing, insulating cable wires, coating metals and acting as a bulking agent in some cosmetics. It is also called an opacifying agent, which means it dyes the product white. Because it's a polymer composed of a long chain of molecules, it sits on top of the skin and does not fill into the small lines. This is why it is called "anit-aging", though I wonder if it affects the other emollient ingredients in the cosmetic since it sits on the skin. It sounds like it acts likes a thin plastic sheet. Is it very cheap?



Octyldodecanol

A long chain fatty acid with a total of 20 carbon molecules. It is a clear liquid. It is used as an emulsion (thickener) and used as a lubricant on the skin. It has an indefinite shelf life. Non greasy and non clogging. Makes an excellent pigment carrier for lipsticks. Couples easily with waxes (good for lipsticks!). Has been found to be non toxic orally in lab rats. (CIR)

o-cymen-5-ol

This is a preservative used in cosmetics to help prolong the shelf life. Most products that contain o-cymen-5-ol can be used for up to 2 years/24 months or longer. It is antifungal, antibacterial, and destroys bad odors, which is why it is also used in perfumes. The issue with o-cymen-5-ol is that different countries have different guidelines. It can lighten the skin and studies in Japan have discovered neurotoxicity in animals. It is absolutely absorbed through the epithelial tissues and is processed through the kidney and livers and then excreted. You can read the peer reviewed article here or in the description box. It is only approved in .5% concentration per 100 grams in the USA and .1% in Japan and Europe. Truth in Aging

Ozokerite

I'm wondering about the waste production for Ozokerite. Is there waste produced from Ozokerite? And how is it handled? Here is one article from ESBCO Apparently the production of ozokerite produces tonnes of waste. Ozokerite is in many cosmetics. It is in the mineral/oil/petro category.



PEG-16 Soy Sterol

Products on our list that contain PEG-16 Soy Sterol: Aveeno:Positively Radiant Brightening Cleanser

PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate

This ingredient should be broken down for a full understanding of how and what it is. A PEG stands for polyethylene glycols, which are long chains of hydro loving glycols. The Number after the PEG can range from 1-100. In this scale the lower the number the less the product will absorb into your skin. (cite) The number is also in reference to the molecular weight of the molecule. PEGs are used for a variety of things and not just cosmetics. It is nontoxic on it's own. The PEG helps link the other ingredients in the formula. In PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate, the PEG helps link the sorbitan and the laurate together.

Sorbitan is used as a surfactant and emulsifying agent. It is a dehydranted form of sorbitol, the sugar sweetner. Sorbitol is also used in cosmetics as a thickener and humectant. (dehydrant, so it's no wonder it's coupled with a PEG, which is water loving.) (cite/fact find)

Laurate comes from the Lauric Acid family. They are fatty acids (trigylcerides) triglycerides that originate from coconut milk, coconut oil, laurel oil, and palm kernel oil. Though, because of the chemical processes that these original oils go through, there is very little "natural" value left to them.

The one caveat about PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate (and other PEGs) is that they have to go through an steam cleaning processes called ethoxylation. Through this process the carcinogen 1,4-Dioxane is left in the fatty ester chain (PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate).

All of these polysorbate ingredients are related in that they have a common core structure of sorbitan or sorbitol etherified with PEG chains, and esterified with fatty acids.

According to the CIR the following ingredients were included in the study done on PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate because they react similarly. PEG-20 sorbitan cocoate PEG-40 sorbitan diisostearate PEG-2 sorbitan isostearate PEG-5 sorbitan isostearate PEG-20 sorbitan isostearate PEG-40 sorbitan lanolate PEG-75 sorbitan lanolate PEG-10 sorbitan laurate PEG-40 sorbitan laurate PEG-44 sorbitan laurate PEG-75 sorbitan laurate PEG-80 sorbitan laurate PEG-3 sorbitan oleate PEG-6 sorbitan oleate PEG-80 sorbitan palmitate PEG-40 sorbitan perisostearate PEG-40 sorbitan peroleate PEG-3 sorbitan stearate PEG-6 sorbitan stearate PEG-40 sorbitan stearate PEG-60 sorbitan stearate PEG-20 sorbitan tetraoleate PEG-30 sorbitan tetraoleate PEG-40 sorbitan tetraoleate PEG-60 sorbitan tetraoleate PEG-60 sorbitan tetrastearate PEG-20 sorbitan triisostearate PEG-160 sorbitan triisostearate PEG-18 sorbitan trioleate Sorbeth-40 hexaoleate (previously PEG-40 sorbitol hexaoleate) Sorbeth-50 hexaoleate (previously PEG-50 sorbitol hexaoleate) Sorbeth-30 tetraoleate laurate (previously PEG-30 sorbitol tetraoleate laurate) Sorbeth-60 tetrastearate (previously PEG-60 sorbitol tetrastearate) 2PEG-20 sorbitan oleate PEG-40 sorbitan oleate PEG-4 sorbitan stearate PEG-4 sorbitan triisostearate PEG-2 sorbitan trioleate PEG-3 sorbitan tristearate Sorbeth-2 beeswax Sorbeth-2 cocoate Sorbeth-2 hexacaprylate/caprate Sorbeth-12 hexacocoate Sorbeth-2 hexaisostearate Sorbeth-2 hexalaurate Sorbeth-2 hexaoleate Sorbeth-6 hexastearate Sorbeth-150 hexastearate Sorbeth-3 isostearate Sorbeth-6 laurate Sorbeth-2/oleate/dimer dilinoleate crosspolymer Sorbeth-20 pentaisostearate Sorbeth-30 pentaisostearate Sorbeth-40 pentaisostearate Sorbeth-50 pentaisostearate Sorbeth-40 pentaoleate Sorbeth-20 tetraisostearate Sorbeth-30 tetraisostearate Sorbeth-40 tetraisostearate Sorbeth-50 tetraisostearate Sorbeth-4 tetraoleate Sorbeth-6 tetraoleate Sorbeth-30 tetraoleate Sorbeth-40 tetraoleate Sorbeth-60 tetraoleate Sorbeth-3 tristearate Sorbeth-160 tristearate Sorbeth-450 tristearate

Perlite

Perlite is a volcanic rock that has water trapped inside it. When the water is released due to heating perlite, it expands "to a brilliant white, due to the reflectivity of the trapped bubbles" wiki

Phenoxyethanol

This is preservative. It is a product that is in green tea, but it is produced chemically for production of cosmetics.It is considered safe and a lot of products contain this preservative. Another name is Ethylene Glycol Monophenyl Ether. This is a preservative that acts like a bactericide, disinfectant, antiseptic and antibiotic. It is also one of the few preservatives that does not release formaldehyde. According to wikipedia it is also an incest repellent and a perfume fixative. wiki It is a now common preservative and the Honest Company uses it. I have a link to Jessica Alba's response to Phenoxyethanol as synthesized green tea. Honest Co Blog But According to Truth in Aging, just because something is a derivative of green tea, doesn't mean that it's safe. When ingested into the body, the components are broken down into phenol and acetate. Acetate is a paint remover. Phenol can react with the body by inhibiting the immune response. Truth in Aging I just want to comment that I have not found Truth in Aging to be scientifically backed up. Many of their links are broken and most of their quotes are not cited. I dug deeper and prefer peer reviewed scientific articles. According to the Journal of Toxicity,1% of less is an okay quantity to use. It is another glycol that is used as a preservative to replace parabens. It is approved and effective preservative used at 1-2.2% concetration.

Products that use phenoxyethanol: Smashbox Loose Powder,

Phenyl Trimethicone

Another plastic made from silica, which is very similar to dimethicone (probably less expensive).

Polybutene

Polybutene is a plasticizer used in a variety of products including car engines, lipsticks and wet eyeshadows

Polyethylene

A carbohydrogen plastic. The most widely used plastic in the world. These are the microbeads that have been on the news. They are not able to properly degrade in the sewer systems. Used as eyeliners, mascara, eye shadows, eyebrow pencils, lipstick, blushes, face powders and foundations, as well as in skin cleansers and skin care products, because of its versatile properties as an abrasive ingredient, adhesive, binder, bulking agent, emulsion stabilizer, film former, oral care agent and as a viscosity increasing agent. According to TruthinAging, Polyethylene has been known to cause kidney toxicity when ingested. (TruthinAging) The CIR has found that polyethylene is non toxic and non irritating. (CIR) Polyethylene comes in small plastic beads that look a lot like beeswax pellets. Polyethylene Pellets

Polyethylene Terephthalate

It is abbreviated at PET or PETE. 60% of all production of PET is used as fibers and is commonly refered to as polyester. PET is also used in the production of soda bottles. As far as makeup is concerned it does make an excellent barrier for water. (wiki) PET is most likely being used in Wet n' Wild makeup as a glitter. The PET as well as aluminium are broken down into very small units, usually .0008 hex. The FDA does not currently approve of PET with aluminum being used as a glitter, but seems to be "okay" with the .0008 hex units because these won't scratch the cornea. BUT they are still in the process of reviewing PET for use in cosmetics, but operate on a volunatry submission basis and when they have more information they can enforce their policy of not allowing PET in cosmetics. Glitter and Phyrra

Polyisobutylene

A rubber that is gas impermeable. It is also called butyl rubber. Helps with lubrications and pigment dispersion. Both Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene increase the thickness of the lipid (oil) portion of cosmetics and personal care products. Polyisobutene dries to form a thin coating on the skin, hair or nails, and is used to hold together the ingredients of a compressed cake. Hydrogenated Polyisobutene acts as a lubricant on the skin's surface, which gives the skin a soft and smooth appearance. (cosmeticsinfo.org)

Polymethylsilsesquioxane

This is a silicone based product that repels water. It is used in Smashbox loose powder, which is ideal for a setting powder. It's main use is in shampoos and conditioners. According the the Cosmetic Ingredient Review board, Polymethylsilsesquioxane does not enter into the lungs from sprays. The natural assumption would be that they would not be inhaled through powders either. The only issue with polymethylsilsesquioxane is that there is a lack of scientific data. The CIR has requested toxicology reports. There has only been on performed on test rabbits and the results concluded that there were no adverse reactions. CIR

Other names are POLYMETHYLSILSESQUIOXANE, METHYL SILSESQUIOXANE, METHYLSILSESQUIOXANE, POLYMETHYL SILSESQUIOXANE, SILSESQUIOXANES

Polyquaternium

Each numerical designation is assigned in the order in which they were developed. Each Polyquaternium reacts in a different manner. All are cationic polymers and that's about where the similarities end. What is a cationic polymer? A polymer is any long chain of chemicals. They can be proteins, fatty acid chains, etc. It's like in math when you learned that an octagon and hexagon were both polygons. Cationic means........

Potassium sorbate

Also know as E202. Potassium sorbate is a common preservative used in cosmetics and foods. It is used to prevent molds and yeasts from forming and is effective in doing so. Honest CO It is also antimicrobial. According the a study done at the National Institute of Health (NIH) , it is considered safe both in vivo, in vitro, orally, and from skin contact even in higher amounts (that are not approved for general use). The only known side effects are from allergic reactions in very few people. It is considered safe by the FDA.

Products on our list that contain potassium sorbate: SmashBox Loose Powder

Propylparaben

Propylparaben is an endocrine distruptor and can affect male rat's fertility. In a recent study, it was found in the urine of 92 out of 100 people. It is especially irritating on broken skin and can cause allergic reactions. (EWG) Parabens in general, including Propylparaben, are used in very low amounts such as 0.01 to 0.3%. (Truthinaging)



Silica
Silica is found naturally from quartz crystals.
Silica Dimethyl Silylate

"anticaking agent, bulking agent, slip modifier, viscosity increasing agent, emollient, and most often as a suspending agent," Truth in Aging

Sodium Benzoate

Also known as E211, benzoic acid, benzene, sodium benzoate, or benzoate. Sodium Benzoate is a common preservative that is used in foods and cosmetics. It has been linked to premature births in test animals in a study published by the International Journal of Toxicology , but this was through ingestion and doesn't have anything to do with cosmetic application. There is a lot of propoganda and fear mongering surrounding Sodium Benzoate. For instance, the author of NaturallySavvy claims that Sodium Benzoate causes ADHD in children, but when you click on her citation from the Mayo Clinic the Mayo Clinic states in the second line, "There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)."

So, is Sodium Benzoate safe? Compared to most preservatives, yes it is. The only alternative is to buy a product without a preservative and hope it doesn not go rancid.

Products that contain Sodium Benzoate: Smashbox Loose Powder,

Sodium Hydroxide

Products on our list that contain Sodium Hydroxide : Aveeno:Positively Radiant Brightening Cleanser, SOAP & GLORY: Face Soap And Clarity Facial Wash with Vitamin C,

Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES)

This is a common surfactant, foaming agent found in cleansers and shampoos. It has been considered safe by the CIR. It can cause eye irritation and should not be ingested. The eye irritation should be mild depending on the concentration of the product getting into the eyes. No truly adverse and horrifying effects have happened when Sodium Laureth Sulfate has accidently dripped into the eyes. Just rinse with cool water and you should be fine. One of the real concerns with SLES is that during the creation process it can become contaiminated with 1,4 dioxane, a by product and a carcinogen. It is also called Ammonium Laureth Sulfate.

Link to Mercola SLES/SLS/ALS: http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/07/13/sodium-lauryl-sulfate.aspx

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate is a different ingredient than Sodium Laureth Sulfate.It is often confused because the names sounds so similar. According to http://slsfree.net/ they encourage an SLS free products. They cite an abstract from Sage Journals and the Cosmetic Ingredient Review has a very similarly phrased article on their PDF website. It is also called Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate.

Products that contain Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: Clariol: Herbal Essences Shampoo, Aveeno Smart Essentials Daily Detoxifying Scrub for the face (listed as Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate)

Sorbic Acid

Sorbic Acid is another preservative usually used in the food industry. It is an organic compound with carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. It was original discovered by distillation of unripe rowan berries.

Soyamidopropyl Betaine

Products that contain Sodium Soyamidopropyl Betaine: Aveeno:Positively Radiant Brightening Cleanser

Synthetic Fluorphlogopite

This is a synthetic version of the mineral phlogopite. It can be used up to 67% in cosmetics such as eyeshadows and powders(TruthinAging).Synthetic Fluorphlogopite is a bulking agent. It is mainly composed of magnesium aluminum silicate sheets. According to the CIR, no toxic affects were reported. It is not absorbed through the dermal layers of the skin. (CIR)

Synthetic Fluorphlogopite

Used as a bulking agent in cosmetics. It is composed of man made silican magnesium sheets held together by loose potassium ion bonds. It is a substitute for fluorine. Cosmetic Info

Synthetic Wax

Synthetic Wax is a mixture of mineral and petroleum oils made to mimic beeswax. It is often marketed to vegans.



Talc

FDA regulations

Talc is a naturally occuring mineral that has been in cosmetics for hundreds of years. It is composed of magnesium, silicon, oxygen, and hydrogen. In cosmetics it can prevent caking, absorb oils, set foundation (absorb the oils) and make your skin look really translucent or white. For a darker skinned person, it can even be used as a highlighter. There are concerns that talc contains asbestos. Absestos is another naturally occurring mineral found in the earth. Both talc and asbestos are silicate minerals and are usually found close together. This is the concern with talc being "carcinogenic". Talc is not carcinogenic, but asbestos is and asbestos can be mined accidently with talc and unknowningly put in with talc if there is sloppy mining or lack of care. (FDA)

Talc is a common mineral found around the world. It is commonly used in baby powder as talcum powder. It is primarily made up of magnesium, silicon, and oxygen. It is used as anti-caking agent and drying agent (absorbent).

Magnesium Silicate: This is just another word for Talc. I wonder if this talc does something to the parabens. Does it hold them all together? Do they mix the parabens with magnesium silicate?

Tin Oxide

Tin oxide is a colorant used in almost all cosmetics. It is composed of mainly tin and around 11% oxygen. SnO.

Tin Oxide:

Tin Oxides is a white metal.The CIR noted, "Tin(IV) oxide functions as an abrasive, bulking, and opacifying agent in cosmetic products, and is used at concentrations up to 0.4 % in rinse-off products and up to 1.3 % in leave-on products. In practice, 95% to 99% of the droplets/particles released from cosmetic sprays have aerodynamic equivalent diameters >10 µm.12,13,14,15 Therefore, most droplets/particles incidentally inhaled from cosmetic sprays would be deposited in the nasopharyngeal and bronchial regions and would not be respirable (i.e., they would not enter the lungs) to any appreciable amount." (CIR) The max concentration in eyeshadow is 1.3%. All tests performed on rats, rabbits and women were benign and no adverse affects resulted from the tests.

Titanium Dioxide (CI 77891)

This is a white pigment, an absorbant, and a sunscreen. It is mainly used in eyeshadows and lipsticks as a white pigment will be refered to with it's #CI77891 or "titanium white". There has been some controversy whether or not Titanium Dioxide is carcinagenic. This mainly comes from a study performed by Lee, Trochimowicz & Reinhardt, "Pulmonary Response of Rats Exposed to Titanium Dioxide by Inhalation for Two Years" (1985). The study found that over long periods of inhalation in large doses the rats developed tumors. This is very misleading to humans because the evidence is complete erroneous.

Tocopherol

Another name for Vitamin E.

Tocopheryl Acetate

This is a fancy word for Vitamin E, but with acetate added to it. Acetate is an acid and prolongs the shelf life of vitamin E. The tocopheryl part can penetrate beyond the skin's dermal layers to provide for an antioxidant for the body. (EPA)

Tridecyl Trimellitate

"TDTM Tridecyl Trimellitate is a special emollient ester produced from tri-decyl alcohol and trimellitic acid. This non-ionic liquid product is uncommonly stable to hydrolysis over a wide pH range and is compatible with all anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants and other components of personal care and cosmetic formulations." and "The heavy, syrupy viscosity of Tridecyl Trimellitate makes it very useful in personal care and cosmetic products requiring a soft, velvety after feel and is especially recommended in long term leave-on products such as night creams and eye area treatments. Its low toxicity and clean-smooth feel make it a useful component in the full spectrum of skin and hair care formulations. TDTM, when used to increase viscosity or “body” of emulsions, does not increase “drag” as do traditional waxy substances.

Since TDTM is odorless and tasteless, assists in uniform application of products, has a slight “tack”, and confers a highly desirable gloss, it is especially recommended for lipstick and lip-gloss formulation. Attached is an illustrative example of a high quality lipstick formulation in which TDTM serves multiple functions: emollient, glossing agent, pigment dispersant and wax softener.

TDTM is approved in Japan for use in lipstick formulations to the maximum level of 7.5%" Diolube

A plasticizer, emollient, and thickener. It is considered safe by the CIR. Insoluble in water, which makes it a good for a lipstick because it won't absorb past the epthelial tissue. When injested in test rats, tridecyl trimellitate was excreted in the urine and fecal matter (CIR). It is used as a substitute for mineral oil.

Triisostearin

Triisostearin is part of the glycol family. It is an emollient and a viscosity controlling (nonaquaeous).It does not occur naturally in nature.

According to a study by the NIH, "Tristearin at 0.32% in a commercial product induced transient, mild to moderate, ocular irritation after instillation into the eyes of human subjects. Based on the enhancement of penetration of other chemicals by skin treatment with glyceryl triesters, it is recommended that care be exercised in using them in cosmetic products." According to the study, it may also cause tumors in some lab animals when ingested. (NIH)

HDI/Trimethylol Hexyllactone Crosspolymer

A synthetic polymer. It was very difficult finding information about this ingredient. According to the Good Scents Company, it is used as an anti-caking ingredient and helps to conceal wrinkles.

Trimethylsiloxysilicate

Another silicone product According to Cosmeticsand Toiletries.com , it is a "cross-linked silicone resin" and it claims to hold pigments in place.

Tetrasodium EDTA

Products that contain Tetrasodium EDTA: Aveeno:Positively Radiant Brightening Cleanser, SOAP & GLORY: Face Soap And Clarity Facial Wash with Vitamin C,

Titanium Dioxide

This is a white pigment, an absorbant, and a sunscreen. It is mainly used in eyeshadows and lipsticks as a white pigment will be refered to with it's #CI77891 or "titanium white". There has been some controversy whether or not Titanium Dioxide is carcinagenic. This mainly comes from a study performed by Lee, Trochimowicz & Reinhardt, "Pulmonary Response of Rats Exposed to Titanium Dioxide by Inhalation for Two Years" (1985). The study found that over long periods of inhalation in large doses the rats developed tumors. This is very misleading to humans because the evidence is complete erroneous. Why is it erroneous? How was it inhaled? A powder form? This could be a problem for loose powders, but not eyeshadow, right? How much Titanium Dioxide would it take to form tumors in humans?



Ultramarines

Ultramarines use to be mined as lapiz lazuli, until harsh trace minerals such as mercury, arsenic, were found in lapiz lazuli. It was too costly to remove these minerals, so the FDA decided to ban mined Ultramarines in the United States.

In the 1960s the FDA also pulled Blue dye from the market from consumers. The solution was the create ultramarines in a lab. The structural form of Ultramarines both synthetic and natural are identical, with one exception: natural ultramarines cost a lot of money to remove the toxic trace minerals. If you do decide to buy from China, please be aware that a lot of the Ultramarines do not go through the strict standards we have in the USA.

http://feministbeautyproject.com/blog/2015/8/25/on-toxic-ingredients-ferric-ferrocyanide-and-ultramarines-limecrime-the-fda-and-the-beauty-industry https://www.creationsfromeden.com/resources/about_cfe/rants_by_randi_1/the_truth_about_micas_oxides_ultramarines http://www.naturalbeautyworkshop.com/my_weblog/2009/04/oxides-ultramarines.html https://www.fda.gov/forindustry/coloradditives/coloradditiveinventories/ucm106626.htm



Zea Mays (Corn) Starch

An Absorbant, binder and a thickener. It is taken from upripe corn cobs and ground finely.

Zinc Stearate

In cosmetics, zinc stearate is a lubricant and thickening to improve texture.(wikipedia) It helps emulsions from separating into their oil components. (http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/zinc-stearate)